Sunday, April 3, 2011

Aim: Who are Socrates, Aristotle & Plato, What Did They Teach, & How Did They Influence the Way We Think Today?

1. Downloading your Student Document and Word Study
10 Minutes

A) Directions: Download and save this Student Document as Unit 4 Greek Philosophers.

B) Directions: Complete the vocabulary chart below as we have done in previous classes. Use Mr. Hendricks's example as a guide if you need to.  Answer the guiding question below using perspective and, evidence.

Guiding question: What is your philosophy of life? Which philosophers have influenced your philosophy of life?

2. Short Reading and Guiding Question
10-15 Minutes

Directions: Read the below excerpt on Socrates.  Next answer the guiding question using perspective, evidence and analysis.
Socrates (470 - 399 BCE)
Socrates is less famous for what he taught than he is for HOW he taught. Socrates was supposedly a very funny-looking man. He had red cheeks and a fat stomach. The way he taught people was also very unusual and often very funny. Rather than having students sit in front of him and listen to him give a lecture, instead he simply asked lots of questions and helped lead people down a path by which they were able to discover things on their own. Gathering information by asking questions is called the Socratic Method and is the main method used today by lawyers in a court of law.

Basically, Socrates taught people how to use critical thinking. But the government of the time didn't like this. They thought Socrates was leading young people away from their traditions and religion so they voted to put Socrates to death. Socrates respected democracy and went to his death willingly by drinking poison. His last words were: "The hour of departure has arrived, and we go our ways -- I to die and you to live. Which is the better, only God knows."

Guiding Question: Based on the above excerpt, why does Mr. Hendricks / Mr. Purcell use the Socratic Method?

Perspective Questions:
  1. Who is Socrates?
  2. How has Socrates influenced the way we think today?
3. Short Reading, Video and Guiding Question using perspective, evidence and analysis.
25-35 Minutes
Plato (424 - 348 BCE)
Plato was a student of Socrates. He is famous for establishing a school of philosophy called "the Academy" (from which the word academy comes). He is also famous for his "theory of forms" which is best understood by the following story:

Directions: In this activity each triad will act out Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” by using a flashlight / LCD projector and cardboard cut-outs.  First, you must watch Plato's "Allegory of the Cave". Second, discuss with your triad how you will all act out what you have watch in the video. Last, each member of your triad must in writing answer the below guiding question using perspective, evidence and analysis.

Guiding Question: What is the meaning of Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” and does it apply to today?

Perspective Questions:
  1. Who is Plato?
  2. How has Plato influenced the way we think today?
4. Short Reading and Guiding Question
10-15 Minutes
Aristotle (384 - 322 BCE)
Aristotle was a student of Plato. More than any other person in history, his ideas became the basis of Western culture. For instance, he is credited with having developed the rules of logic and the scientific method. Whereas Plato was more concerned with the "world of forms" or how people perceive (comes from the word perspective), Aristotle was more concerned with this world. He was the first person to classify living things like modern biologists do. He too had a famous student -- Alexander the Great. Alexander did not become a philosopher though. Rather he become the greatest king that the world had ever seen conquering most of the civilized world.

Guiding Question: Based on the above reading AND your knowledge of Science, how has Aristotle influenced the way scientists conduct experiments?

Perspective Questions:
  1. Who is Aristotle?
  2. How has Aristotle influenced the way we think today?
5. Exit Slip: 10 to 15 Minutes

Directions: On a separate sheet of paper write and answer the am question, "Who are Socrates, Aristotle and Plato, what did they teach and how did they influenced the way we think today?”, using the Perspective, Evidence and Analysis Essay Framework as taught to you in ILearn History and Regular History Class.

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